Articles

Impact of photoacid generator leaching on optics photocontamination in 193-nm immersion lithography

[+] Author Affiliations
Vladimir Liberman

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420

Mordechai Rothschild

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420

Stephen T. Palmacci

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420

Andrew Grenville

Intel Corporation/SEMATECH, Austin, Texas 78741

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 6(1), 013001 (March 28, 2007). doi:10.1117/1.2712841
History: Received June 12, 2006; Revised October 31, 2006; Accepted November 07, 2006; Published March 28, 2007
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Leaching of resist components into water has been reported in several studies. Even low dissolution levels of photoacid generator (PAG) may lead to photocontamination of the last optical surface of the projection lens. To determine the impact of this phenomenon on optics lifetime, we initiate a set of controlled studies, where predetermined amounts of PAG are introduced into pure water and the results monitored quantitatively. The study identifies the complex, nonlinear paths leading to photocontamination of the optics. We also discover that spatial contamination patterns of the optics are strongly dependent on the flow geometry. Both bare SiO2 surfaces as well as coated CaF2 optics are studied. We find that for all surfaces, at concentrations typical of leached PAG, below 500ppb, the in situ self-cleaning processes prevent contamination of the optics.

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© 2007 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Vladimir Liberman ; Mordechai Rothschild ; Stephen T. Palmacci and Andrew Grenville
"Impact of photoacid generator leaching on optics photocontamination in 193-nm immersion lithography", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 6(1), 013001 (March 28, 2007). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2712841


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