SPECIAL SECTION ON LITHOGRAPHY FOR SUB-100-NM DEVICE FABRICATION

Symmetry of spatial-dispersion-induced birefringence and its implications for CaF2 ultraviolet optics

[+] Author Affiliations
John H. Burnett

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Building 221, Room B228, Gaithersburg, Maryland?20899-8421 E-mail: john.burnett@nist.gov

Zachary H. Levine

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Building 245, Room B102, Gaithersburg, Maryland?20899-8410

Eric L. Shirley

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Building 221, Room B208, Gaithersburg, Maryland?20899-8441

John H. Bruning

Corning Tropel Corporation, 60 O’Connor Road, Fairport, New York?14450

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 1(3), 213-224 (Oct 01, 2002). doi:10.1117/1.1503350
History: Received Apr. 12, 2002; Revised July 3, 2002; Accepted July 8, 2002; Online October 11, 2002
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The discovery of a significant spatial-dispersion-induced birefringence (intrinsic birefringence) in CaF2 at ultraviolet wavelengths has had a major impact on the design of 157 nm lithography systems, requiring complete redesign of the optics to take account of the imaging aberrations resulting from the birefringence and the accompanying index anisotropy. This intrinsic birefringence phenomena results from a symmetry-breaking effect of the finite wave vector of the photon on the symmetry of the light-matter interaction in fluorite-structure cubic crystals. As a follow-up to our original concise report of measurements and theory of the effect in CaF2 and BaF2, we present here a more detailed analysis of the theory, focusing on the symmetry and its consequences. We also provide the full directional dependence of the effect in useful closed forms. We analyze the implications for precision optical design with CaF2 optical elements, and discuss qualitatively the approaches being considered to compensate for it. © 2002 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

© 2002 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

John H. Burnett ; Zachary H. Levine ; Eric L. Shirley and John H. Bruning
"Symmetry of spatial-dispersion-induced birefringence and its implications for CaF2 ultraviolet optics", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 1(3), 213-224 (Oct 01, 2002). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1503350


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