Special Section on Immersion Lithography

Microfluidic simulations for immersion lithography

[+] Author Affiliations
Alexander C. Wei, Gregory F. Nellis, Amr Y. Abdo, Roxann L. Engelstad

University of Wisconsin, Computational Mechanics Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Building, 1513 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin?53706 E-mail: abdo@cae.wisc.edu

Cheng-fu Chen

University of Alaska Fairbanks, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 755905, Fairbanks, Alaska?99775-5905

Michael Switkes, Mordechai Rothschild

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory, Submicrometer Technology Group, Mailstop C-175, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, Massachusetts?02420

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 3(1), 28-34 (Jan 01, 2004). doi:10.1117/1.1632500
History: Received May 12, 2003; Revised Sep. 8, 2003; Accepted Sep. 9, 2003; Online February 17, 2004
Text Size: A A A

The premise behind immersion lithography is to improve resolution by increasing the index of refraction in the space between the final projection lens of an exposure system and the device wafer by inserting a high-index liquid in place of the low-index air that currently fills the gap. We present a preliminary analysis of the fluid flow characteristics of a liquid between the lens and the wafer. The objectives of this feasibility study are to identify liquid candidates that meet the fluid mechanical requirements and to verify modeling tools for immersion lithography. The filling process was analyzed to simplify the problem and identify important fluid properties and system parameters. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the fluid between the lens and the wafer are developed and used to investigate a passive technique for filling this gap, in which a liquid is dispensed onto the wafer as a puddle, and then the wafer and liquid move under the lens. Numerical simulations include a parametric study of the key dimensionless groups influencing the filling process, and an investigation of the effects of the fluid/wafer and fluid/lens contact angles and wafer direction. The model results are compared with experimental measurements. © 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

© 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Alexander C. Wei ; Gregory F. Nellis ; Amr Y. Abdo ; Roxann L. Engelstad ; Cheng-fu Chen, et al.
"Microfluidic simulations for immersion lithography", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 3(1), 28-34 (Jan 01, 2004). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1632500


Access This Article
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($20 for members, $25 for non-members).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Related Book Chapters

Topic Collections

Advertisement
  • Don't have an account?
  • Subscribe to the SPIE Digital Library
  • Create a FREE account to sign up for Digital Library content alerts and gain access to institutional subscriptions remotely.
Access This Article
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($20 for members, $25 for non-members).
Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).
Access This Chapter

Access to SPIE eBooks is limited to subscribing institutions and is not available as part of a personal subscription. Print or electronic versions of individual SPIE books may be purchased via SPIE.org.