Special Section on Immersion Lithography

Image characterization of bubbles in water for 193-nm immersion lithography—far-field approach

[+] Author Affiliations
Tsai-Sheng Gau, Chun-Kuang Chen, Burn J. Lin

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, #8, Li-Hsin RD., SBIP, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 3(1), 61-67 (Jan 01, 2004). doi:10.1117/1.1630602
History: Received Jun. 17, 2003; Revised Sep. 9, 2003; Accepted Sep. 10, 2003; Online February 17, 2004
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The scattering of bubbles in water by 193-nm light is characterized analytically with Mie scattering theory. The angular-resolved spectra with bubble sizes 100 nm, 1 μm, and 10 μm are calculated. For large bubbles, the forward scattering becomes very strong and therefore introduces a pattern-dependent flare. The normalized cross section with variant bubble size is also calculated. For bubble sizes smaller than the incident wavelength, the cross section decreases steeply and is explained by Rayleigh scattering. A contour plot of the normalized cross section versus the bubble size and the variance of refractive index is also calculated. This plot is explained with the Born approximation and is used to characterize the temperature control of the water during exposure. Finally, a statistical model is suggested to predict the image degradation caused by the phase information loss after the scattering. A bubble density 0.03/μm3 with 1-μm bubble size causes a loss of exposure latitude from 28 to 22%. © 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

© 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Tsai-Sheng Gau ; Chun-Kuang Chen and Burn J. Lin
"Image characterization of bubbles in water for 193-nm immersion lithography—far-field approach", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 3(1), 61-67 (Jan 01, 2004). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1630602


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