Special Section on Immersion Lithography

Advantage and feasibility of immersion lithography

[+] Author Affiliations
Soichi Owa, Hiroyuki Nagasaka

Nikon Corporation, 201-9 Miizugahara, Kumagaya, Saitama, Japan?360-8559

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 3(1), 97-103 (Jan 01, 2004). doi:10.1117/1.1637593
History: Received Jul. 28, 2003; Revised Oct. 21, 2003; Accepted October 24, 2003; Online February 17, 2004
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Immersion lithography has an advantage in the numerical aperture of optics by a factor of refractive index n of the liquid filled into the space between the bottom lens and wafer. In case of 193-nm exposure tools, water (n=1.44) has been found as the best liquid. It is shown, by using imaging simulations, that ArF (193-nm) immersion lithography (NA=1.05 to 1.23) has almost equivalent performance to F2 (157-nm) dry (NA=0.85 to 0.93) lithography. Issues in the ArF immersion exposure tools are discussed with fluid-dynamic and thermal simulations results. In the fundamental issues, there seems to be no showstoppers so far, however, there exist several challenges to realize viable exposure tools. © 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

© 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Soichi Owa and Hiroyuki Nagasaka
"Advantage and feasibility of immersion lithography", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 3(1), 97-103 (Jan 01, 2004). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1637593


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