Articles

Impact of mask errors and lens aberrations on the image formation by a vortex mask

[+] Author Affiliations
Yasuyuki Unno

Canon Development Americas, Inc., 15975 Alton Parkway, Irvine, California 92618 E-mail: Yasuyuki.unno@cda.canon.com

Takeaki (Joe) Ebihara

Canon Inc., 20-2 Kiyohara-Kogyodanch Utsunomiya-shi, Tochigi 321-3292, Japan

Marc D. Levenson

M. D. Levenson Consulting, 19868 Bonnie Ridge Way Saratoga, California 95070

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 4(2), 023006 (Apr. 22, 2005). doi:10.1117/1.1897392
History: Received Aug. 11, 2004; Revised Oct. 22, 2004; Accepted Nov. 15, 2004; Apr. 22, 2005; Online April 22, 2005
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The images projected by the first vortex via masks, which comprised arrays of closely spaced dark spots that could pattern contacts with critical dimensions smaller than a third of an exposure wavelength in negative photoresist, showed several unexpected anomalies. Under certain conditions, the contact holes were elliptical (rather than round), displaced from their ideal locations, and had major axes oriented in directions that broke the expected symmetries. These effects have now been explained in terms of errors in the mask transmission and phase that give rise to unwanted Fourier components of the image combined with aberrations in the projection lens. Both effects must be present to break all the pattern symmetries. Distortions can be controlled by setting the numerical aperture of the projection lens to filter out four of the nine Fourier components and by proper design of the reticle. © 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

© 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Yasuyuki Unno ; Takeaki (Joe) Ebihara and Marc D. Levenson
"Impact of mask errors and lens aberrations on the image formation by a vortex mask", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 4(2), 023006 (Apr. 22, 2005). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1897392


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