We give a general introduction into polarized imaging and report on a Jones pupil approach for a complete evaluation of the resulting optical performance. The Jones pupil assigns a Jones matrix to each point of the exit pupil, describing the impact of both the global phase and the polarization on imaging. While we already can learn much about the optical system by taking a close look at the Jones pupil—and starting imaging simulations from it—a quantitative assessment is necessary for a complete evaluation of imaging. To do this, we generalize the concept of scalar Zernike aberrations to Jones-Zernike aberrations by expansion of the Jones pupil into vector polynomials. The resulting method is nonparaxial, i.e., the effect of the polarization-dependent contrast loss for high numerical apertures is included. The aberrations of the Jones matrix pupil are a suitable tool to identify the main drivers determining polarization performance. Furthermore, they enable us to compare the polarized and unpolarized performance of such a characterized lithographic system.