Articles

Estimating resist parameters in optical lithography using the extended Nijboer-Zernike theory

[+] Author Affiliations
Peter Dirksen

Philips Research Leuven, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium

Joseph Braat

Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Optics Research Group, Lorentzweg 1, NL-2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands

Augustus J. E. M. Janssen

Philips Research Laboratories, WO-02, NL-5656 AA Eindhoven, The Netherlands

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 5(1), 013005 (February 02, 2006). doi:10.1117/1.2168449
History: Received June 06, 2005; Revised October 20, 2005; Accepted October 23, 2005; Published February 02, 2006
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This study presents an experimental method to determine the resist parameters at the origin of a general blurring of a projected aerial image. The resist model includes the effects of diffusion in the horizontal plane and image blur that originates from a stochastic variation of the focus parameter. We restrict ourselves to the important case of linear models, where the effects of resist processing and focus noise are described by a convolution operation. These types of models are also known as diffused aerial image models. The used mathematical framework is the so-called extended Nijboer-Zernike (ENZ) theory, which allows us to obtain analytical results. The experimental procedure to extract the model parameters is demonstrated for several 193nm resists under various conditions of postexposure baking temperatures and baking times. The advantage of our approach is a clear separation between the optical parameters, such as feature size, projection lens aberrations, and the illuminator setting on one hand, and process parameters introducing blur on the other.

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© 2006 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Topics

Diffusion ; Lenses

Citation

Peter Dirksen ; Joseph Braat and Augustus J. E. M. Janssen
"Estimating resist parameters in optical lithography using the extended Nijboer-Zernike theory", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 5(1), 013005 (February 02, 2006). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2168449


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