Articles

High-dose exposure of silicon in electron beam lithography

[+] Author Affiliations
Anda E. Grigorescu

Delft University of Technology, Charged Particle Optics Group, Lorentzweg 1 NL-2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands

Marco C. van der Krogt

Delft University of Technology, Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Nanofacility, Lorentzweg 1 NL-2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands

Emile W. J. M. van der Drift

Delft University of Technology, Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Nanofacility, Lorentzweg 1 NL-2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands

Cornelis W. Hagen

Delft University of Technology, Charged Particle Optics Group, Lorentzweg 1 NL-2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 7(1), 013005 (February 25, 2008). doi:10.1117/1.2841716
History: Received February 04, 2007; Revised September 23, 2007; Accepted September 28, 2007; Published February 25, 2008
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Nowadays, features with sizes smaller than 10nm can be obtained with electron beam lithography. For such small structures, high exposure doses are required to stay away from the shot noise limit. We investigated the effect of high-dose electron exposure of silicon substrates and subsequent dry development by reactive ion etching. We found that silicon can be directly patterned at electron doses ranging from 0.05 to 3.06Ccm2. The effect of backscattered electrons is seen as a halo around the patterns. In the given dose range, a gradual transition from positive tone (low-dose) to negative tone (high-dose) behavior is observed. It is demonstrated that the patterning is likely to be caused by structural changes of the silicon substrate, resulting in different etch rates in exposed and unexposed areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis has been applied to determine if the thickness of the native oxide in the irradiated areas is different from the thickness at a reference position (not irradiated). Small but significant differences have been observed, the largest increase being 0.3nm.

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© 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Anda E. Grigorescu ; Marco C. van der Krogt ; Emile W. J. M. van der Drift and Cornelis W. Hagen
"High-dose exposure of silicon in electron beam lithography", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 7(1), 013005 (February 25, 2008). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2841716


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