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Fabrication of nonlinear optical devices in ionically self-assembled monolayers

[+] Author Affiliations
Aruna Kroetch

University of Alberta, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2V4, Canada

Stephen C. Buswell

University of Alberta, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2V4, Canada

Stephane Evoy

University of Alberta, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2V4, Canada

Cemil Durak

Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Department of Physics, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061

J. Randy Heflin

Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Department of Physics, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061

Vladimir Kochergin, Roger Duncan

Luna Innovations Inc., 3157 State Street, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 8(1), 013011 (March 04, 2009). doi:10.1117/1.3066521
History: Received July 16, 2008; Revised November 05, 2008; Accepted November 21, 2008; Published March 04, 2009
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The development of both “soft” and “hard” fabrication techniques for the patterning of nonlinear photonic devices in ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) films is reported. A combination of electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching was used to pattern two-dimensional holes with a lattice of 710nm and diameters ranging from 550to650nm. A soft alternative to this fabrication was also demonstrated. Nanoimprint lithography was successfully employed to pattern similar photonic structures with average hole diameters of 490nm and a lattice spacing of 750nm, as well as Bragg gratings with a period of 620nm. Potential impact of this fabrication process on the chemical composition and nonlinear properties of the ISAM films was assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and second harmonic generation. The spectroscopy techniques confirmed that the chemical composition and bonding of the ISAM films was not adversely affected by the thermal cycles required for nanoimprinting. Second harmonic generation analysis also confirmed that the nanoimprinting process did not affect the nonlinear properties of the material, PCBS/PAH ISAM films, further indicating the suitability of such materials for the nanoimprinting of nonlinear optical photonic structures.

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© 2009 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Aruna Kroetch ; Stephen C. Buswell ; Stephane Evoy ; Cemil Durak ; J. Randy Heflin, et al.
"Fabrication of nonlinear optical devices in ionically self-assembled monolayers", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 8(1), 013011 (March 04, 2009). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3066521


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