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Fluid-photoresist interactions and imaging in high-index immersion lithography

[+] Author Affiliations
Hoang V. Tran

DuPont Central Research and Development, Experimental Station, Wilmington, Delaware 19880-0500

Eric Hendrickx

IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B3001 Leuven, Belgium

Frieda Van Roey

IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B3001 Leuven, Belgium

Geert Vandenberghe

IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B3001 Leuven, Belgium

Roger H. French

DuPont Central Research and Development, Experimental Station, Wilmington, Delaware 19880-0500

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 8(3), 033006 (September 23, 2009). doi:10.1117/1.3224950
History: Received November 12, 2008; Revised June 19, 2009; Accepted July 20, 2009; Published September 23, 2009
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Optical immersion lithography using fluids with refractive indices greater than that of water (1.436) can enable numerical apertures of 1.55 or above for printing sub-45-nm lines. Two second-generation immersion fluid candidates, IF132 and IF169, both have indices above 1.64 and have been optimized to absorb less than 0.1cm1 at 193.4nm. These fluids, although meeting the requirements of index and absorption, must also be compatible with current resists and processes to image the required fine line patterns. Results of fluid-resist interactions, with water and high-index fluids on four commercial resists, are shown. Photoacid generator (PAG) leaching measurements reveal much less leaching into both high-index fluids than into water, and in two water-immersion dedicated resists, no leaching is detected with the high-index immersion fluids. Little resist thickness change and swelling is detected by a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) on contact with the fluids. Resist profile and line height changes due to pre- and postexposure fluid contact varies from one resist to the next, but overall the changes are minimal. Misting defects from high-index fluid-resist contact show lower counts than for water, and imaging on an immersion interference printer produces 36-nm half-pitch lines. We find no serious impediments to the use of high-index liquids based on these results.

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© 2009 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Hoang V. Tran ; Eric Hendrickx ; Frieda Van Roey ; Geert Vandenberghe and Roger H. French
"Fluid-photoresist interactions and imaging in high-index immersion lithography", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 8(3), 033006 (September 23, 2009). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3224950


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