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Nonionic photoacid generator behavior under high-energy exposure sources

[+] Author Affiliations
Richard A. Lawson, David E. Noga

Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100

Laren M. Tolbert

Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Atlanta, Georgia 30332

Clifford L. Henderson

Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 8(4), 043010 (November 06, 2009). doi:10.1117/1.3259205
History: Received April 29, 2009; Revised August 15, 2009; Accepted September 16, 2009; Published November 06, 2009; Online November 06, 2009
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A series of nonionic photoacid generators (PAGs) are synthesized and their acid generation efficiency measured under deep ultraviolet (DUV) and electron beam exposures. The acid generation efficiency is determined with an on-wafer method that uses spectroscopic ellipsometry to measure the absorbance of an acid sensitive dye (Coumarin 6). Under DUV exposures, common ionic onium salt PAGs show excellent photoacid generation efficiency, superior to most nonionic PAGs tested in this work. In contrast, when under 100-keV high energy e-beam exposures, almost all of the nonionic PAGs show significantly better acid generation performance than the ionic onium salt PAGs tested. In particular, one nonionic PAG shows almost an order of magnitude improvement in the Dill C acid generation rate constant compared to a triarylsulfonium PAG. The high energy acid generation efficiency is found to correlate well with the electron affinity of the PAGs, suggesting that improvements in PAG design can be predicted. Nonionic PAGs merit further investigation as a means for producing higher sensitivity resists under high energy exposure sources.

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© 2009 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Richard A. Lawson ; David E. Noga ; Laren M. Tolbert and Clifford L. Henderson
"Nonionic photoacid generator behavior under high-energy exposure sources", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 8(4), 043010 (November 06, 2009). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3259205


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