Special Section on Reliability, Packaging, Testing, and Characterization of MEMS and MOEMS II

Comparative annealing effect on bonded wafers in air and ultrahigh vacuum for microelectromechanical systems/microfluidics packaging

[+] Author Affiliations
Matiar M. R. Howlader

McMaster University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada, E-mail: mrhowlader@ece.mcmaster.ca

Tadatomo Suga

University of Tokyo, Department of Precision Engineering, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan, E-mail: suga@pe.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 9(4), 041107 (December 06, 2010). doi:10.1117/1.3500747
History: Received March 02, 2010; Revised August 18, 2010; Accepted August 26, 2010; Published December 06, 2010; Online December 06, 2010
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The fundamentals of room temperature bonding methods—surface activated bonding (SAB) and sequentially plasma-activated bonding (SPAB)—are reviewed with applications for packaging of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microfluidic devices. The room temperature bonding strength of the silicon/silicon interface in the SAB and SPAB is as high as that of the hydrophilic bonding method, which requires annealing as high as 1000°C to achieve covalent bonding. After heating, voids are not observed and bonding strengths are not changed in the SAB. In the SPAB, interfacial voids are increased and decreased the bonding strength. Water rearrangement such as absorption and desorption across the bonded interface is found below 225°C. While voids are not significant up to 400°C, a considerable amount of thermal voids above 600°C is found due to viscous flow of oxides. Before heating, interfacial amorphous layers are observed both in the SAB (8.3 nm) and SPAB (4.8 nm), but after heating these disappear and enlarge in the SAB and SPAB, respectively. This enlarged amorphous layer is SiO2, which is due to the oxidation of silicon/silicon interface after sequential heating. The bonding strength, sealing, and chemical performances of the interfaces meet the requirements for MEMS and microfluidics applications.

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© 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Matiar M. R. Howlader and Tadatomo Suga
"Comparative annealing effect on bonded wafers in air and ultrahigh vacuum for microelectromechanical systems/microfluidics packaging", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 9(4), 041107 (December 06, 2010). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3500747


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