Articles

Resolution–linewidth roughness–sensitivity performance tradeoffs for an extreme ultraviolet polymer bound photo-acid generator resist

[+] Author Affiliations
Roel Gronheid, Alessandro Vaglio Pret

IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium

Benjamen Rathsack, Joshua Hooge, Steven Scheer

Tokyo Electron America, Inc., 2400 Grove Boulevard, Austin, Texas 78741

Kathleen Nafus, Hideo Shite, Junichi Kitano

Tokyo Electron Kyushu Ltd., 1-1 Fukuhara, Koshi-shi, Kumamoto 861–1116, Japan

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 10(1), 013017 (March 18, 2011). doi:10.1117/1.3555090
History: Received August 20, 2010; Revised January 21, 2011; Accepted January 26, 2011; Published March 18, 2011; Online March 18, 2011
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The goal of this work is to use a combination of experiment and calibrated resist models to understand the impact of photo-acid generator (PAG) and sensitizer loading on the performance of a polymer bound PAG resist based processes for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. This paper describes construction of a chemically amplified resist model across 248 nm, 193 nm, and EUV imaging wavelengths. Using resist absorbance input as obtained from experiment and modeling, only the acid formation kinetics are allowed to vary across imaging wavelengths. This constraining system affords very good fitting results, which provides high confidence that the extracted parameters from the model have actual physical significance. The quantum efficiency for acid formation in EUV is found to be ∼8× higher than at 248 or 193 nm, due to the excitation mechanism by secondary electrons. Most notably for the polymer bound PAG system under study the model provides an extremely low acid diffusion length (∼8 nm), suggesting an excellent inherent resolution for this material. Next, resist models are created for a series of sensitizer containing polymer bound PAG formulations, where the sensitizer loading is systematically varied. Compared to the reference polymer bound PAG resist without sensitizer the efficiency of acid formation is significantly increased, without a negative impact on either resolution or linewidth roughness. For these materials the quantum efficiency of acid formation in EUV is found to be ∼12× higher than at 248 nm. In these formulations the impact of sensitizer loading on the sizing dose is found to be rather moderate. This may suggest that even at the lowest sensitizer loading studied the energy of the secondary electrons is already efficiently transferred to the PAGs.

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© 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

Citation

Roel Gronheid ; Alessandro Vaglio Pret ; Benjamen Rathsack ; Joshua Hooge ; Steven Scheer, et al.
"Resolution–linewidth roughness–sensitivity performance tradeoffs for an extreme ultraviolet polymer bound photo-acid generator resist", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 10(1), 013017 (March 18, 2011). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3555090


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