Special Section on EUV Sources for Lithography

Brilliance scaling of discharge sources for extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation for metrology applications

[+] Author Affiliations
Markus Benk

Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology, Steinbachstrasse 15, 52074 Aachen, Germany

Klaus Bergmann

Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology, Steinbachstrasse 15, 52074 Aachen, Germany

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 11(2), 021106 (Jun 15, 2012). doi:10.1117/1.JMM.11.2.021106
History: Received August 1, 2011; Revised November 23, 2011; Accepted December 21, 2011
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Abstract.  Discharge based extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) sources have experienced significant progress in the last decade at different places. They are commercially available and are presently being used in scanners for EUV lithography and related development projects in the semiconductor industry. The technology has been proven to be scalable from a wavelength of 13.5 nm down to the water window spectral range (2.4 to 4.4 nm), which envisions a new generation of compact systems using soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light for metrology, patterning, or microscopy. Especially for microscopy applications such as aerial imaging microscopy of EUV masks, a high brilliance is required. First results on the achievable brilliance of a gas discharge source in the XUV and soft x-ray range are presented. Currently, a brilliance of 12.9W/(mm2sr2%b.w.) at a central wavelength of 13.5 nm and 100W/(mm2sr4%b.w.) at 10.9 nm are achieved. For the 2.88-nm single emission line of nitrogen, the source produces 0.28W/(mm2sr) or 4*109photons/(μm2srs) at a spectral bandwidth of λ/Δλ=840. Based on existing data, the potential of brilliance scaling is discussed.

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© 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Markus Benk and Klaus Bergmann
"Brilliance scaling of discharge sources for extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation for metrology applications", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 11(2), 021106 (Jun 15, 2012). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JMM.11.2.021106


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