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Thermally induced void growth in through-silicon vias

[+] Author Affiliations
Lay Wai Kong

GLOBALFOUNDRIES, 400 Stone Break Extension, Malta, New York 12020

James R. Lloyd

College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at Albany, Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203

Andrew C. Rudack

U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Albany, New York 12203

Alain C. Diebold

College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at Albany, Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 12(2), 023010 (Jun 05, 2013). doi:10.1117/1.JMM.12.2.023010
History: Received October 16, 2012; Revised April 12, 2013; Accepted May 6, 2013
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Abstract.  Thermally induced void growth in Cu filled through-silicon vias (TSV) has been studied for reliability purposes with x-ray microscopy and finite element model (FEM). A laboratory-based x-ray microscopy combined with computational tomography imaging is demonstrated to have advantages over other methods of inspecting TSVs. We show that the 8-keV x-rays used by Nano X-ray Computed Tomography (NanoXCT™) are capable of imaging voids inside filled vias before and after annealing without cross-sectioning the TSV. A series of TSV arrays filled conformally and from the bottom up were inspected by the x-ray microscope before and after annealing. Pre-existing voids in the seamline were observed in conformally filled TSVs before annealing, while bottom up-filled TSVs do not have a seamline or voids. The same TSV samples were repeatedly annealed at 200, 225, 250 and 300°C. X-ray micrographs after annealing reveal TSVs with pre-existing voids are prone to void growth. In addition, x-ray measurements show the total volume of void growth increased with annealing temperature. A steady-state FEM was developed to understand the void growth phenomenon. FEM suggests high concentrations of vacancies occurring at the pre-existing void area cause void growth.

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© 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Lay Wai Kong ; James R. Lloyd ; Andrew C. Rudack and Alain C. Diebold
"Thermally induced void growth in through-silicon vias", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 12(2), 023010 (Jun 05, 2013). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JMM.12.2.023010


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