There are two major consequences of the publication bias against the null result, both unpleasant in their own way. The first is wasted effort. As I mentioned, most researchers are looking for positive results: they are trying to reduce the leakage current of a CMOS transistor, increase the Q-factor of a MEMS device, or reduce the roughness of a lithographically patterned feature. They try many different approaches, testing the effectiveness of many different variables. Most of the approaches don’t work, but a few yield positive results. If the publication bias is at work, only the positive results are published, and the fact that certain experiments led to null or negative results remains unmentioned.