Finally, there is a single paper on the topic of direct write electron beam (e-beam) lithography. Maskless Beam Direct Write (MBDW) has long been studied as an alternative to mask-based approaches such as 193 immersion lithography. Elimination of a mask is particularly cost compelling for short run devices, and presents a potentially fast way of device prototyping. Maskless electron tooling typically utilizes a large number of beams, created either from a single source or through the application of micro e-beam columns, to address the issue of throughput. In this paper, Pieter Brandt, from MAPPER Technology, discusses the methods required to control features exposed with a 5 kV e-beam source. Adjustments to actual feature size, dose modulation and background dose, and combinations thereof, are all considered.