As critical dimensions decrease for 32-nm node and beyond, the resist loss increases and resist patterns become more vulnerable to etching failures. Traditional optical proximity correction (OPC) models only consider two-dimensional (XY) contours and neglect height () variations. Rigorous resist simulators can simulate a three-dimensional (3-D) resist profile, but they are not fast enough for correction or verification on a full chip. However, resist loss for positive-tone resists is mainly driven by optical intensity variations, which are accurately modeled by the optical portion of an OPC model. We show that a compact resist model can be used to determine resist loss by properly selecting the optical image plane for calibration. The model can then be used to identify toploss hotspots on a full chip and, in some cases, for correction of these patterns. In addition, the article will show how the model can be made more accurate by accounting for some 3-D effects like diffusion through height.