A digital micromirror device (DMD) acts as a spatial light modulator in a maskless photolithography system. Illuminated by coherent light, DMD performs as a two-dimensional diffraction grating because of its periodical internal structure. Diffraction efficiency is an important factor for evaluating the exposure doses. A diffraction model of DMD based on Fourier analysis demonstrates that errors of the DMD’s manufacture and the precision of the machining of the optical mechanical structure affect the diffraction efficiency. Additionally, analysis of exposure results by the diffraction model of DMD in Tracepro explains the degradation of the exposure quality and is helpful for calibrating the direction of optical focusing.