Lithography

Studying thickness loss in extreme ultraviolet resists due to electron beam exposure using experiment and modeling

[+] Author Affiliations
Amrit Narasimhan, Steven Grzeskowiak, Bharath Srivats, Henry Herbol, Liam Wisehart, Jonathon Schad, Chris Kelly, William Earley, Greg Denbeaux, Robert L. Brainard

State University of New York Polytechnic University, Brainard Group, College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, 257 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203, United States

Leonidas E. Ocola

Argonne National Laboratory, Center for Nanoscale Materials, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

Mark Neisser

Sematech, 257 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203, United States

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 14(4), 043502 (Oct 13, 2015). doi:10.1117/1.JMM.14.4.043502
History: Received July 6, 2015; Accepted September 10, 2015
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Abstract.  Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons expose photoresists by complex interactions starting with photoionization that create primary electrons (80eV), followed by ionization steps that create secondary electrons (10 to 60 eV). Ultimately, these lower energy electrons interact with specific molecules in the resist that cause the chemical reactions which are responsible for changes in solubility. The mechanisms by which these electrons interact with resist components are key to optimizing the performance of EUV resists. A resist exposure chamber was built to probe the behavior of electrons within photoresists. Resists were exposed under electron beam and then developed; ellipsometry was used to identify the dependence of electron penetration depth and number of reactions on dose and energy. Additionally, our group has updated a robust software that uses a first principles-based Monte Carlo model called low-energy electron scattering in solids (LESiS) to track secondary electron production, penetration depth, and reaction mechanisms within materials-defined environments. LESiS was used to model the thickness loss experiments to validate its performance with respect to simulated electron penetration depths to inform future modeling work.

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© 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Amrit Narasimhan ; Steven Grzeskowiak ; Bharath Srivats ; Henry Herbol ; Liam Wisehart, et al.
"Studying thickness loss in extreme ultraviolet resists due to electron beam exposure using experiment and modeling", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 14(4), 043502 (Oct 13, 2015). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JMM.14.4.043502


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