Lithography

Solid immersion optical lithography: index matching and resonant reflectors for large exposure field, high-aspect ratio imaging in the ultrahigh-numerical aperture regime

[+] Author Affiliations
Sam Lowrey, Richard Blaikie

University of Otago, Department of Physics, Sub-wavelength Optics Group, 730 Cumberland Street, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand

Victoria University of Wellington, MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140, New Zealand

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 14(4), 043510 (Dec 21, 2015). doi:10.1117/1.JMM.14.4.043510
History: Received September 5, 2015; Accepted November 12, 2015
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Abstract.  Recent work has investigated the resonant dielectric reflectors for high-aspect ratio (AR) imaging and the necessary requirements for index-matching liquids (IMLs) at the prism/sample interface when imaging using a solid immersion Lloyd’s mirror interference lithography (SILMIL) system. These past results showed that SILMIL systems require a prism/IML refractive index (RI) (real component) mismatch less than approximately ±0.02 and an imaginary RI component 5×105 to achieve good reproducibility and uniformity of high-AR resist structures in the ultrahigh-NA (UHNA) regime without system gapping control. Here, we present simulated and experimental results for an index-matched prism/IML combination and for an IML with an imaginary RI component of 105. These results present the first SILMIL system that can produce both low- and high-AR resist structures over larger exposure fields than previously reported and without gapping control. We also present simulated and experimental results that show the AR process latitude, which further highlights the improved control compared with previous SILMIL research. Finally, we present simulated results from a materials survey that show new potential candidate dielectric underlayer materials that can accommodate high-AR imaging in the UHNA regime, some of which are better geared for the semiconductor industry.

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© 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Sam Lowrey and Richard Blaikie
"Solid immersion optical lithography: index matching and resonant reflectors for large exposure field, high-aspect ratio imaging in the ultrahigh-numerical aperture regime", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 14(4), 043510 (Dec 21, 2015). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JMM.14.4.043510


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