An approach to image-based EUV aberration metrology using binary mask targets and iterative model-based solutions to extract both the amplitude and phase components of the aberrated pupil function is presented. The approach is enabled through previously developed modeling, fitting, and extraction algorithms. We seek to examine the behavior of pupil amplitude variation in real-optical systems. Optimized target images were captured under several conditions to fit the resulting pupil responses. Both the amplitude and phase components of the pupil function were extracted from a zone-plate-based EUV mask microscope. The pupil amplitude variation was expanded in three different bases: Zernike polynomials, Legendre polynomials, and Hermite polynomials. It was found that the Zernike polynomials describe pupil amplitude variation most effectively of the three.