A high numerical aperture (NA) system with an NA larger than 0.5 is required to make patterns of 1X nm and below, even though extreme ultraviolet lithography uses a 13.5-nm wavelength source. To avoid the reflective efficiency loss and to avoid an increase in the chief ray angle of incident light, use of an anamorphic high-NA system is suggested. The suggested anamorphic NA system has nonisotropic magnification, -magnification of and -magnification of , and the mask NA shape is an ellipse due to the nonisotropic magnification distribution. Anamorphic NA systems have a nonconventional shadow effect due to nonisotropic incident angle distribution and magnification. These nonisotropic characteristics lead to the reduction of asymmetric shadow distribution and a reduction of horizontal–vertical bias. As a result, anamorphic NA systems can achieve balanced patterning results regardless of pattern direction and incident direction.