Articles

Effects of fast secondary electrons to low-voltage electron beam lithography

[+] Author Affiliations
Mehdi Bolorizadeh

University of Tennessee, Electron Beam Laboratory, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996

David C. Joy

University of Tennessee, Electron Beam Laboratory, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 6(2), 023004 (April 26, 2007). doi:10.1117/1.2728899
History: Received June 08, 2006; Revised November 29, 2006; Accepted December 04, 2006; Published April 26, 2007
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In 1981 A. N. Broers suggested that the spatial limit of direct writing electron beam lithography (DWEBL) would be limited to 10nm by the laterally scattered fast secondary electrons (FSE) even in atomically thin resist. One possible solution to this restriction would be to use low- or ultralow-energy electrons. Experiments and simulations have been carried out to quantify the contribution of FSE to the energy deposition that results in exposure of the resist over high-beam energies. To examine the effects of FSE on low-voltage operations, studies of electron-beam lithography (EBL) in the low- to ultralow-energy range, employing commonly used resists such as PMMA, were performed, and the results were compared to those from conventional high-voltage processing. DWEBL was performed in a Schottky field emission gun scanning electron microscope (SEM), used in cathode-lens mode for ultralow-voltage operation. The exposure characteristics and sensitivity of the system at these energies have been investigated using Monte Carlo simulation methods. Saturation doses were calculated at low energies, which would give a useful condition to target for routine exposure because it ensures the critical dimensions will not be affected by any random changes in beam intensity.

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© 2007 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Mehdi Bolorizadeh and David C. Joy
"Effects of fast secondary electrons to low-voltage electron beam lithography", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 6(2), 023004 (April 26, 2007). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2728899


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