Articles

Role of surfactants in adhesion reduction for step and flash imprint lithography

[+] Author Affiliations
Michael W. Lin

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712

Daniel J. Hellebusch

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712

Kai Wu

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712

Eui Kyoon Kim

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712

Kuan H. Lu

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 1 University Station C0220, Austin, Texas 78712

Kenneth M. Liechti

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, 1 University Station C0600, Austin, Texas 78712

John G. Ekerdt

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712

Paul S. Ho

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 1 University Station C0220, Austin, Texas 78712

C. Grant Willson

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 7(3), 033005 (August 13, 2008). doi:10.1117/1.2968269
History: Received December 18, 2007; Revised May 21, 2008; Accepted June 06, 2008; Published August 13, 2008
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The step-and-flash imprint lithography process requires the clean separation of a quartz template from a polymer, and the force required to create this separation must be minimized to prevent the generation of defects. Fluorinated surfactant additives to the imprint fluid address this problem by migrating to the template-polymer interface and forming a local layer with ideal properties for adhesive fracture. Tensile and four-point bend fracture experiments show that surfactants lower the modulus of the imprint polymer and decrease the fracture energy. The fracture energy is further decreased by using a nonreactive, liquid surfactant versus a surfactant that reacts with the polymer matrix. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that surfactant migration is more effective with a fluorinated surface treatment compared to an untreated quartz surface. This result shows that the use of fluorinated surfactants must be accompanied by a surface treatment that produces a similar energy or polarity to induce migration and lower the adhesive strength.

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© 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Michael W. Lin ; Daniel J. Hellebusch ; Kai Wu ; Eui Kyoon Kim ; Kuan H. Lu, et al.
"Role of surfactants in adhesion reduction for step and flash imprint lithography", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 7(3), 033005 (August 13, 2008). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2968269


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