Articles

Chalcogenide glass e-beam and photoresists for ultrathin grayscale patterning

[+] Author Affiliations
Andriy Kovalskiy

Lehigh University, Center for Optical Technologies, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015

Jiri Cech

Lehigh University, Center for Optical Technologies, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015

Miroslav Vlcek

University of Pardubice, Faculty of Chemical Technology, nam. Cs. legii 565, 53210 Pardubice, Czech Republic

Christopher M. Waits

Army Research Laboratory, Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783-1197

Madan Dubey

Army Research Laboratory, Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783-1197

William R. Heffner

Lehigh University, International Materials Institute for New Functionality in Glass, 7 Asa Drive, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015

Himanshu Jain

Lehigh University, International Materials Institute for New Functionality in Glass, 7 Asa Drive, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 8(4), 043012 (December 22, 2009). doi:10.1117/1.3273966
History: Received June 30, 2009; Revised October 14, 2009; Accepted October 23, 2009; Published December 22, 2009; Online December 22, 2009
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The advantages and applications of chalcogenide glass (ChG) thin film photoresists for grayscale lithography are demonstrated. It is shown that the ChG films can be used to make ultrathin (600nm), high-resolution grayscale patterns, which can find their application, for example, in IR optics. Unlike polymer photoresists, the IR transparent ChG patterns can be useful as such on the surface or can be used to transfer the etched pattern into silicon or other substrates. Even if the ChG is used as an etch mask for the silicon substrate, its greater hardness can achieve a greater etch selectivity than that obtained with organic photoresists. The suitability of ChG photoresists is demonstrated with inexpensive and reliable fabrication of ultrathin Fresnel lenses that are transparent in the visible as well as in the IR region. The optical functionality of the Fresnel lenses is confirmed. Application of silver photodissolution in grayscale lithography for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications is also shown. A substrate to ChG/silver thickness etching ratio of 10 is obtained for the transfer of patterns into silicon using reactive ion etching (RIE), more than a fivefold increase compared to traditional polymer photoresist.

© 2009 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Andriy Kovalskiy ; Jiri Cech ; Miroslav Vlcek ; Christopher M. Waits ; Madan Dubey, et al.
"Chalcogenide glass e-beam and photoresists for ultrathin grayscale patterning", J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 8(4), 043012 (December 22, 2009). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3273966


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